Entyloma calendulae

(C.A.J.A. Oudem.) A. de Bary


SORI in leaves, under flat or slightly immersed, round or angular spots, 1-5(-10) mm diam, first pale green, later yellow brown to brown, with a narrow, dark brown border.


SPORES (s) subglobose, globose, ovoid to irregularly polyhedral, subhyaline to yellow, 8-13 x 9-16(-18) µm, occurring singly or in conglomerations.
Wall smooth, two-layered, unequal, thickest at the angles, 1-4 µm thick.

ANAMORPH. No anamorph of E. calendulae has been found in Europe to date (Vanky 1994).


PLANT HOST AND DISTRIBUTION. The specimen of E. calendulae presented here comes from Calendula officinalis L. In Europe, other plants affected by this fungus are C. arvensis L., C. suffruticosa Vahl., and its subsp. fulgida (Rafin.) Ohle (Vanky 1994).

According to Vanky (1994), E. calendulae affects different plant species of the genus Calendula growing in the whole word.


NOTES. The life cycle of E. calendulae differs from that of most smuts (Smith et al. 1988). Sporidia (basidiospores) infect leaves to form pale yellow lesions, within which masses of nearly colourless teliospores develop. These germinate in situ to form sporidia.

Entyloma calendulae overwinters in plant debris and the soil.


REFERENCE

Vanky K. 1994. European smut fungi. Gustav Fischer Verlag. Stuttgard-Jena-New York, 570 pp.

Smith I. M., Dunez J., Lelliott R. A., Phillips D. H., Archer S. A. 1988. European handbook of plant diseases. Blackwell Scientific Publications.